It is useful sometimes to raise your head from the ground and to have a look on the opposite site of a scientific field. Conceptually, most of the research in general is done via two approaches: top-down and bottom-up. In memory research, while some scientist are trying to identify the right receptor or gene and manipulate it with molecular preciseness (bottom-up), the others put electrodes into different brain areas and fire the entire groups of neurons (top-down).
Naturally, both approaches have their pros and cons. The greatest question in going bottom-up is “will the mechanism work on the next level of complexity?” When you go from the top, however, you will always be left with a question “How in the world did it work?”
A recent overview in Nature prompted me to look at the websites of groups doing that kind of research. There’s certainly lots of mathematical modeling and pattern recognition involved, which can lead to quite remarkable results in reverse-engeneering of neural circuitry. At the same time, reading the publication titles left me with a perception of how little we know even about such seemingly trivial circuits as CA1-CA3 in the hippocampus, which is known from 60-es or 70-es to be crucial for the memory formation. This kind of argument poses a big question mark behind the Human Brain Project. Will the neuron-by-neuron reverse-engineering of the brain help us with understanding its function? Probably not, unless someone digs from the opposite side.